Monday, August 01, 2005

Slums in India - NSSO survey

National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) conducted a survey during the period of July-December 2002 on the condition of urban slums as part of the 58th round. The survey covered whole of India. A total of 692 slums were covered in the survey.

Before we look into the numbers in more detail, lets go over some terminology.

Non-notified slums: A compact urban area with a collection of poorly built tenements, mostly of temporary nature, crowded together usually with inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities in unhygienic conditions, if at least 20 households lived in that area.

Notified Slums: Urban areas notified as slums by respective municipalities,
corporations, local bodies or development authorities.

The numbers we are looking are average for all over India. Numbers for indiviual states are covered in the survey, but I don't go in those details here. The numbers vary a lot across states. I have mentioned numbers for both 'notified' as well as 'non-notified' slums below. The purpose of looking at the numbers is to get a feel of slums in urban slums.

Highlights from the survey

* Estimated total number of slums: 52,000
* % of people living in slums in Urban areas: 14% (One in Seven)
* % of notified slums: 51%
* State with Highest number of slums: Maharashtra (32%)
* % of slums are built on public land, owned mostly by local bodies, state government, etc.: 65%
* % of slums with majority as pucca houses: 65% (notified) 30% (non-notified)
* % of slums with tap as drinking water source: 84% (notified) 71% (non-notified)
* % of slums with household & street electricity connection: 84% (notified) 53% (non-notified)
* % of slums with only household electricity connection: 11% (notified) 25% (non-notified)
* % of slums with no electricity connection: 1%(notified) 16% (non-notified)
* % of slums with pucca road within the slums: 71% (notified) 37% (non-notified)
* % of slums with pucca approach road to the slum: 86% (notified) 67% (non-notified)
* % of slums with water-logging during monsoon: 36% (notified) 54% (non-notified)
* % of slums with no latrine facility : 17% (notified) [1993: 54%] 51% (non-notified)
* % of slums with underground sewerage system: 30% (notified) 15% (non-notified)
* % of slums with no drainage system: 15% (notified) 44% (non-notified)
* % of slums having no garbage collection facility: 16% (notified) 47% (non-notified)

There was significant improvement in facilities in the last five years. 78% slums reported improvement due to government, 12% as a result of NGO's.

These numbers though indicative do not show us the complete picture. The report has numbers on how many slums have access to water, but they count access to water even if the whole slum shares a single or a few taps. And in most slums a few toilet facilites are shared by the whole slums. These facilites are also not operational many times. And the garbage collection facilites are poor. I will in blogs to come present facts/figures through case studies to substantiate my points.


At 6:49 AM, Blogger minister said...

I visited india during summer last year, and was very moved by what i saw there. Thus have chosen to make my final year project(I am a furniture design student in the University of Central England) based on designing something for the homeless families in india.

However, due to lack of funds and time, i am unable to go to india for research. I need to know more about their daily lives and activities.

If you or know anyone that can give me some information . Please email me on

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At 10:00 AM, Blogger albinus said...

Dear sir
I am happy to learn about slums in India. The facts and figures are well versed and you have made known me. I want to know more their way of life, culture and their life style,
please email.

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